Nothing has been the same since the financial crisis and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was signed into federal law by President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010. Dodd-Frank created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB).
Whether you like more regulation or not, Dodd-Frank and the CFPB have had a chilling effect on the mortgage market. Note that before The Great Recession, real estate loan growth at commercial banks YoY regularly exceeded M2 Money Stock growth YoY. Not so starting in late 2008. With the exception of a brief respite in 2016, M2 Money Stock growth YoY has exceeded Real Estate Loan growth YoY.
An alternative explanation of the slowdown in Real Estate Lending YoY since 2008 is the growth of excess reserves of depository institutions.
To deal with the 2008 financial crisis, the Federal Reserve pumped large amounts of reserves into the banking system and introduced new programs that altered the terms of the trade-off banks make when deciding their level of excess reserves. In short, the marginal benefit of holding additional reserves has increased, whereas the marginal cost has decreased. As a result of these new Federal Reserve policies, holding reserves is now much more attractive to banks. It is more attractive because the cost of holding excess reserves—in the form of forgone interest—is significantly lower than it was before the crisis.
So, the US still has excess reserves trapped in the Federal Reserve system. Between excess regulatory burden (Dodd-Frank, CFPB) and slow wage growth, we have a problem with the banking industry. It is not generating sufficient lending growth to stimulate the economy.
Will The Federal Reserve raise the interest rate on excess deposits that will encourage commercial banks to jump back into the residential mortgage market? Currently, a number of non-bank lenders are leading the mortgage market, such as Quicken Loans and PennyMac.
An alternative to the traditional depository institution lending model is represented by Quicken Loans. These loans are NOT kept on Quicken’s balance sheet, but sold to other market plays and can be securitized.
So, we continue to have a mortgage lending hangover thanks to the excesses of the subprime and ALT-A markets of the last decade. It resulted in the predictable regulatory overreach which has discouraged traditional banks from making residential mortgage loans (except Wells Fargo, of course).
Here is CFPB Director Richard Cordray!